All files / lib fs.js

94.28% Statements 2128/2257
92.9% Branches 497/535
93.08% Functions 121/130
94.28% Lines 2128/2257

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// Copyright Joyent, Inc. and other Node contributors.
//
// Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
// copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
// "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
// without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
// distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit
// persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the
// following conditions:
//
// The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
// in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
//
// THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS
// OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
// MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN
// NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM,
// DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR
// OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE
// USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
 
// Maintainers, keep in mind that ES1-style octal literals (`0666`) are not
// allowed in strict mode. Use ES6-style octal literals instead (`0o666`).
 
'use strict';
 
// When using FSReqCallback, make sure to create the object only *after* all
// parameter validation has happened, so that the objects are not kept in memory
// in case they are created but never used due to an exception.
 
const {
  ArrayPrototypePush,
  BigIntPrototypeToString,
  MathMax,
  Number,
  ObjectCreate,
  ObjectDefineProperties,
  ObjectDefineProperty,
  Promise,
  ReflectApply,
  RegExpPrototypeExec,
  SafeMap,
  String,
  StringPrototypeCharCodeAt,
  StringPrototypeIndexOf,
  StringPrototypeSlice,
} = primordials;
 
const { fs: constants } = internalBinding('constants');
const {
  S_IFIFO,
  S_IFLNK,
  S_IFMT,
  S_IFREG,
  S_IFSOCK,
  F_OK,
  R_OK,
  W_OK,
  X_OK,
  O_WRONLY,
  O_SYMLINK
} = constants;
 
const pathModule = require('path');
const { isArrayBufferView } = require('internal/util/types');
 
// We need to get the statValues from the binding at the callsite since
// it's re-initialized after deserialization.
 
const binding = internalBinding('fs');
const { Buffer } = require('buffer');
const {
  aggregateTwoErrors,
  codes: {
    ERR_FS_FILE_TOO_LARGE,
    ERR_INVALID_ARG_VALUE,
    ERR_INVALID_ARG_TYPE,
    ERR_FEATURE_UNAVAILABLE_ON_PLATFORM,
  },
  AbortError,
  uvErrmapGet,
  uvException
} = require('internal/errors');
 
const { FSReqCallback } = binding;
const { toPathIfFileURL } = require('internal/url');
const internalUtil = require('internal/util');
const {
  constants: {
    kIoMaxLength,
    kMaxUserId,
  },
  copyObject,
  Dirent,
  emitRecursiveRmdirWarning,
  getDirents,
  getOptions,
  getValidatedFd,
  getValidatedPath,
  getValidMode,
  handleErrorFromBinding,
  nullCheck,
  preprocessSymlinkDestination,
  Stats,
  getStatsFromBinding,
  realpathCacheKey,
  stringToFlags,
  stringToSymlinkType,
  toUnixTimestamp,
  validateBufferArray,
  validateOffsetLengthRead,
  validateOffsetLengthWrite,
  validatePath,
  validatePosition,
  validateRmOptions,
  validateRmOptionsSync,
  validateRmdirOptions,
  validateStringAfterArrayBufferView,
  warnOnNonPortableTemplate
} = require('internal/fs/utils');
const {
  Dir,
  opendir,
  opendirSync
} = require('internal/fs/dir');
const {
  CHAR_FORWARD_SLASH,
  CHAR_BACKWARD_SLASH,
} = require('internal/constants');
const {
  isUint32,
  parseFileMode,
  validateBoolean,
  validateBuffer,
  validateCallback,
  validateEncoding,
  validateFunction,
  validateInteger,
} = require('internal/validators');
 
let truncateWarn = true;
let fs;
 
// Lazy loaded
let promises = null;
let watchers;
let ReadFileContext;
let ReadStream;
let WriteStream;
let rimraf;
let rimrafSync;
 
// These have to be separate because of how graceful-fs happens to do it's
// monkeypatching.
let FileReadStream;
let FileWriteStream;
 
const isWindows = process.platform === 'win32';
const isOSX = process.platform === 'darwin';
 
 
function showTruncateDeprecation() {
  if (truncateWarn) {
    process.emitWarning(
      'Using fs.truncate with a file descriptor is deprecated. Please use ' +
      'fs.ftruncate with a file descriptor instead.',
      'DeprecationWarning', 'DEP0081');
    truncateWarn = false;
  }
}
 
function maybeCallback(cb) {
  validateCallback(cb);
 
  return cb;
}
 
// Ensure that callbacks run in the global context. Only use this function
// for callbacks that are passed to the binding layer, callbacks that are
// invoked from JS already run in the proper scope.
function makeCallback(cb) {
  validateCallback(cb);
 
  return (...args) => ReflectApply(cb, this, args);
}
 
// Special case of `makeCallback()` that is specific to async `*stat()` calls as
// an optimization, since the data passed back to the callback needs to be
// transformed anyway.
function makeStatsCallback(cb) {
  validateCallback(cb);
 
  return (err, stats) => {
    if (err) return cb(err);
    cb(err, getStatsFromBinding(stats));
  };
}
 
const isFd = isUint32;
 
function isFileType(stats, fileType) {
  // Use stats array directly to avoid creating an fs.Stats instance just for
  // our internal use.
  let mode = stats[1];
  if (typeof mode === 'bigint')
    mode = Number(mode);
  return (mode & S_IFMT) === fileType;
}
 
function access(path, mode, callback) {
  if (typeof mode === 'function') {
    callback = mode;
    mode = F_OK;
  }
 
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
  mode = getValidMode(mode, 'access');
  callback = makeCallback(callback);
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  binding.access(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path), mode, req);
}
 
function accessSync(path, mode) {
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
  mode = getValidMode(mode, 'access');
 
  const ctx = { path };
  binding.access(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path), mode, undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
}
 
function exists(path, callback) {
  maybeCallback(callback);
 
  function suppressedCallback(err) {
    callback(err ? false : true);
  }
 
  try {
    fs.access(path, F_OK, suppressedCallback);
  } catch {
    return callback(false);
  }
}
 
ObjectDefineProperty(exists, internalUtil.promisify.custom, {
  value: (path) => {
    return new Promise((resolve) => fs.exists(path, resolve));
  }
});
 
// fs.existsSync never throws, it only returns true or false.
// Since fs.existsSync never throws, users have established
// the expectation that passing invalid arguments to it, even like
// fs.existsSync(), would only get a false in return, so we cannot signal
// validation errors to users properly out of compatibility concerns.
// TODO(joyeecheung): deprecate the never-throw-on-invalid-arguments behavior
function existsSync(path) {
  try {
    path = getValidatedPath(path);
  } catch {
    return false;
  }
  const ctx = { path };
  const nPath = pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path);
  binding.access(nPath, F_OK, undefined, ctx);
 
  // In case of an invalid symlink, `binding.access()` on win32
  // will **not** return an error and is therefore not enough.
  // Double check with `binding.stat()`.
  if (isWindows && ctx.errno === undefined) {
    binding.stat(nPath, false, undefined, ctx);
  }
 
  return ctx.errno === undefined;
}
 
function readFileAfterOpen(err, fd) {
  const context = this.context;
 
  if (err) {
    context.callback(err);
    return;
  }
 
  context.fd = fd;
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = readFileAfterStat;
  req.context = context;
  binding.fstat(fd, false, req);
}
 
function readFileAfterStat(err, stats) {
  const context = this.context;
 
  if (err)
    return context.close(err);
 
  const size = context.size = isFileType(stats, S_IFREG) ? stats[8] : 0;
 
  if (size > kIoMaxLength) {
    err = new ERR_FS_FILE_TOO_LARGE(size);
    return context.close(err);
  }
 
  try {
    if (size === 0) {
      context.buffers = [];
    } else {
      context.buffer = Buffer.allocUnsafeSlow(size);
    }
  } catch (err) {
    return context.close(err);
  }
  context.read();
}
 
function checkAborted(signal, callback) {
  if (signal?.aborted) {
    callback(new AbortError());
    return true;
  }
  return false;
}
 
function readFile(path, options, callback) {
  callback = maybeCallback(callback || options);
  options = getOptions(options, { flag: 'r' });
  if (!ReadFileContext)
    ReadFileContext = require('internal/fs/read_file_context');
  const context = new ReadFileContext(callback, options.encoding);
  context.isUserFd = isFd(path); // File descriptor ownership
 
  if (options.signal) {
    context.signal = options.signal;
  }
  if (context.isUserFd) {
    process.nextTick(function tick(context) {
      ReflectApply(readFileAfterOpen, { context }, [null, path]);
    }, context);
    return;
  }
 
  if (checkAborted(options.signal, callback))
    return;
 
  const flagsNumber = stringToFlags(options.flag, 'options.flag');
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.context = context;
  req.oncomplete = readFileAfterOpen;
  binding.open(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path),
               flagsNumber,
               0o666,
               req);
}
 
function tryStatSync(fd, isUserFd) {
  const ctx = {};
  const stats = binding.fstat(fd, false, undefined, ctx);
  if (ctx.errno !== undefined && !isUserFd) {
    fs.closeSync(fd);
    throw uvException(ctx);
  }
  return stats;
}
 
function tryCreateBuffer(size, fd, isUserFd) {
  let threw = true;
  let buffer;
  try {
    if (size > kIoMaxLength) {
      throw new ERR_FS_FILE_TOO_LARGE(size);
    }
    buffer = Buffer.allocUnsafe(size);
    threw = false;
  } finally {
    if (threw && !isUserFd) fs.closeSync(fd);
  }
  return buffer;
}
 
function tryReadSync(fd, isUserFd, buffer, pos, len) {
  let threw = true;
  let bytesRead;
  try {
    bytesRead = fs.readSync(fd, buffer, pos, len);
    threw = false;
  } finally {
    if (threw && !isUserFd) fs.closeSync(fd);
  }
  return bytesRead;
}
 
function readFileSync(path, options) {
  options = getOptions(options, { flag: 'r' });
  const isUserFd = isFd(path); // File descriptor ownership
  const fd = isUserFd ? path : fs.openSync(path, options.flag, 0o666);
 
  const stats = tryStatSync(fd, isUserFd);
  const size = isFileType(stats, S_IFREG) ? stats[8] : 0;
  let pos = 0;
  let buffer; // Single buffer with file data
  let buffers; // List for when size is unknown
 
  if (size === 0) {
    buffers = [];
  } else {
    buffer = tryCreateBuffer(size, fd, isUserFd);
  }
 
  let bytesRead;
 
  if (size !== 0) {
    do {
      bytesRead = tryReadSync(fd, isUserFd, buffer, pos, size - pos);
      pos += bytesRead;
    } while (bytesRead !== 0 && pos < size);
  } else {
    do {
      // The kernel lies about many files.
      // Go ahead and try to read some bytes.
      buffer = Buffer.allocUnsafe(8192);
      bytesRead = tryReadSync(fd, isUserFd, buffer, 0, 8192);
      if (bytesRead !== 0) {
        ArrayPrototypePush(buffers, buffer.slice(0, bytesRead));
      }
      pos += bytesRead;
    } while (bytesRead !== 0);
  }
 
  if (!isUserFd)
    fs.closeSync(fd);
 
  if (size === 0) {
    // Data was collected into the buffers list.
    buffer = Buffer.concat(buffers, pos);
  } else if (pos < size) {
    buffer = buffer.slice(0, pos);
  }
 
  if (options.encoding) buffer = buffer.toString(options.encoding);
  return buffer;
}
 
function defaultCloseCallback(err) {
  if (err != null) throw err;
}
 
function close(fd, callback = defaultCloseCallback) {
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
  if (callback !== defaultCloseCallback)
    callback = makeCallback(callback);
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  binding.close(fd, req);
}
 
function closeSync(fd) {
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
 
  const ctx = {};
  binding.close(fd, undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
}
 
function open(path, flags, mode, callback) {
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
  if (arguments.length < 3) {
    callback = flags;
    flags = 'r';
    mode = 0o666;
  } else if (typeof mode === 'function') {
    callback = mode;
    mode = 0o666;
  } else {
    mode = parseFileMode(mode, 'mode', 0o666);
  }
  const flagsNumber = stringToFlags(flags);
  callback = makeCallback(callback);
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = callback;
 
  binding.open(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path),
               flagsNumber,
               mode,
               req);
}
 
 
function openSync(path, flags, mode) {
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
  const flagsNumber = stringToFlags(flags);
  mode = parseFileMode(mode, 'mode', 0o666);
 
  const ctx = { path };
  const result = binding.open(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path),
                              flagsNumber, mode,
                              undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
  return result;
}
 
// usage:
// fs.read(fd, buffer, offset, length, position, callback);
// OR
// fs.read(fd, {}, callback)
function read(fd, buffer, offset, length, position, callback) {
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
 
  if (arguments.length <= 3) {
    // Assume fs.read(fd, options, callback)
    let options = {};
    if (arguments.length < 3) {
      // This is fs.read(fd, callback)
      // buffer will be the callback
      callback = buffer;
    } else {
      // This is fs.read(fd, {}, callback)
      // buffer will be the options object
      // offset is the callback
      options = buffer;
      callback = offset;
    }
 
    ({
      buffer = Buffer.alloc(16384),
      offset = 0,
      length = buffer.byteLength,
      position
    } = options);
  }
 
  validateBuffer(buffer);
  callback = maybeCallback(callback);
 
  if (offset == null) {
    offset = 0;
  } else {
    validateInteger(offset, 'offset');
  }
 
  length |= 0;
 
  if (length === 0) {
    return process.nextTick(function tick() {
      callback(null, 0, buffer);
    });
  }
 
  if (buffer.byteLength === 0) {
    throw new ERR_INVALID_ARG_VALUE('buffer', buffer,
                                    'is empty and cannot be written');
  }
 
  validateOffsetLengthRead(offset, length, buffer.byteLength);
 
  if (position == null)
    position = -1;
 
  validatePosition(position, 'position');
 
  function wrapper(err, bytesRead) {
    // Retain a reference to buffer so that it can't be GC'ed too soon.
    callback(err, bytesRead || 0, buffer);
  }
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = wrapper;
 
  binding.read(fd, buffer, offset, length, position, req);
}
 
ObjectDefineProperty(read, internalUtil.customPromisifyArgs,
                     { value: ['bytesRead', 'buffer'], enumerable: false });
 
// usage:
// fs.readSync(fd, buffer, offset, length, position);
// OR
// fs.readSync(fd, buffer, {}) or fs.readSync(fd, buffer)
function readSync(fd, buffer, offset, length, position) {
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
 
  validateBuffer(buffer);
 
  if (arguments.length <= 3) {
    // Assume fs.read(fd, buffer, options)
    const options = offset || {};
 
    ({ offset = 0, length = buffer.byteLength, position } = options);
  }
 
  if (offset == null) {
    offset = 0;
  } else {
    validateInteger(offset, 'offset');
  }
 
  length |= 0;
 
  if (length === 0) {
    return 0;
  }
 
  if (buffer.byteLength === 0) {
    throw new ERR_INVALID_ARG_VALUE('buffer', buffer,
                                    'is empty and cannot be written');
  }
 
  validateOffsetLengthRead(offset, length, buffer.byteLength);
 
  if (position == null)
    position = -1;
 
  validatePosition(position, 'position');
 
  const ctx = {};
  const result = binding.read(fd, buffer, offset, length, position,
                              undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
  return result;
}
 
function readv(fd, buffers, position, callback) {
  function wrapper(err, read) {
    callback(err, read || 0, buffers);
  }
 
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
  validateBufferArray(buffers);
  callback = maybeCallback(callback || position);
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = wrapper;
 
  if (typeof position !== 'number')
    position = null;
 
  return binding.readBuffers(fd, buffers, position, req);
}
 
ObjectDefineProperty(readv, internalUtil.customPromisifyArgs,
                     { value: ['bytesRead', 'buffers'], enumerable: false });
 
function readvSync(fd, buffers, position) {
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
  validateBufferArray(buffers);
 
  const ctx = {};
 
  if (typeof position !== 'number')
    position = null;
 
  const result = binding.readBuffers(fd, buffers, position, undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
  return result;
}
 
// usage:
//  fs.write(fd, buffer[, offset[, length[, position]]], callback);
// OR
//  fs.write(fd, string[, position[, encoding]], callback);
function write(fd, buffer, offset, length, position, callback) {
  function wrapper(err, written) {
    // Retain a reference to buffer so that it can't be GC'ed too soon.
    callback(err, written || 0, buffer);
  }
 
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
 
  if (isArrayBufferView(buffer)) {
    callback = maybeCallback(callback || position || length || offset);
    if (offset == null || typeof offset === 'function') {
      offset = 0;
    } else {
      validateInteger(offset, 'offset');
    }
    if (typeof length !== 'number')
      length = buffer.byteLength - offset;
    if (typeof position !== 'number')
      position = null;
    validateOffsetLengthWrite(offset, length, buffer.byteLength);
 
    const req = new FSReqCallback();
    req.oncomplete = wrapper;
    return binding.writeBuffer(fd, buffer, offset, length, position, req);
  }
 
  validateStringAfterArrayBufferView(buffer, 'buffer');
 
  if (typeof position !== 'function') {
    if (typeof offset === 'function') {
      position = offset;
      offset = null;
    } else {
      position = length;
    }
    length = 'utf8';
  }
 
  const str = String(buffer);
  validateEncoding(str, length);
  callback = maybeCallback(position);
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = wrapper;
  return binding.writeString(fd, str, offset, length, req);
}
 
ObjectDefineProperty(write, internalUtil.customPromisifyArgs,
                     { value: ['bytesWritten', 'buffer'], enumerable: false });
 
// Usage:
//  fs.writeSync(fd, buffer[, offset[, length[, position]]]);
// OR
//  fs.writeSync(fd, string[, position[, encoding]]);
function writeSync(fd, buffer, offset, length, position) {
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
  const ctx = {};
  let result;
  if (isArrayBufferView(buffer)) {
    if (position === undefined)
      position = null;
    if (offset == null) {
      offset = 0;
    } else {
      validateInteger(offset, 'offset');
    }
    if (typeof length !== 'number')
      length = buffer.byteLength - offset;
    validateOffsetLengthWrite(offset, length, buffer.byteLength);
    result = binding.writeBuffer(fd, buffer, offset, length, position,
                                 undefined, ctx);
  } else {
    validateStringAfterArrayBufferView(buffer, 'buffer');
    validateEncoding(buffer, length);
 
    if (offset === undefined)
      offset = null;
    result = binding.writeString(fd, buffer, offset, length,
                                 undefined, ctx);
  }
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
  return result;
}
 
// usage:
// fs.writev(fd, buffers[, position], callback);
function writev(fd, buffers, position, callback) {
  function wrapper(err, written) {
    callback(err, written || 0, buffers);
  }
 
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
  validateBufferArray(buffers);
  callback = maybeCallback(callback || position);
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = wrapper;
 
  if (typeof position !== 'number')
    position = null;
 
  return binding.writeBuffers(fd, buffers, position, req);
}
 
ObjectDefineProperty(writev, internalUtil.customPromisifyArgs, {
  value: ['bytesWritten', 'buffer'],
  enumerable: false
});
 
function writevSync(fd, buffers, position) {
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
  validateBufferArray(buffers);
 
  const ctx = {};
 
  if (typeof position !== 'number')
    position = null;
 
  const result = binding.writeBuffers(fd, buffers, position, undefined, ctx);
 
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
  return result;
}
 
function rename(oldPath, newPath, callback) {
  callback = makeCallback(callback);
  oldPath = getValidatedPath(oldPath, 'oldPath');
  newPath = getValidatedPath(newPath, 'newPath');
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  binding.rename(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(oldPath),
                 pathModule.toNamespacedPath(newPath),
                 req);
}
 
function renameSync(oldPath, newPath) {
  oldPath = getValidatedPath(oldPath, 'oldPath');
  newPath = getValidatedPath(newPath, 'newPath');
  const ctx = { path: oldPath, dest: newPath };
  binding.rename(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(oldPath),
                 pathModule.toNamespacedPath(newPath), undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
}
 
function truncate(path, len, callback) {
  if (typeof path === 'number') {
    showTruncateDeprecation();
    return fs.ftruncate(path, len, callback);
  }
  if (typeof len === 'function') {
    callback = len;
    len = 0;
  } else if (len === undefined) {
    len = 0;
  }
 
  validateInteger(len, 'len');
  len = MathMax(0, len);
  callback = maybeCallback(callback);
  fs.open(path, 'r+', (er, fd) => {
    if (er) return callback(er);
    const req = new FSReqCallback();
    req.oncomplete = function oncomplete(er) {
      fs.close(fd, (er2) => {
        callback(aggregateTwoErrors(er2, er));
      });
    };
    binding.ftruncate(fd, len, req);
  });
}
 
function truncateSync(path, len) {
  if (typeof path === 'number') {
    // legacy
    showTruncateDeprecation();
    return fs.ftruncateSync(path, len);
  }
  if (len === undefined) {
    len = 0;
  }
  // Allow error to be thrown, but still close fd.
  const fd = fs.openSync(path, 'r+');
  let ret;
 
  try {
    ret = fs.ftruncateSync(fd, len);
  } finally {
    fs.closeSync(fd);
  }
  return ret;
}
 
function ftruncate(fd, len = 0, callback) {
  if (typeof len === 'function') {
    callback = len;
    len = 0;
  }
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
  validateInteger(len, 'len');
  len = MathMax(0, len);
  callback = makeCallback(callback);
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  binding.ftruncate(fd, len, req);
}
 
function ftruncateSync(fd, len = 0) {
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
  validateInteger(len, 'len');
  len = MathMax(0, len);
  const ctx = {};
  binding.ftruncate(fd, len, undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
}
 
 
function lazyLoadRimraf() {
  if (rimraf === undefined)
    ({ rimraf, rimrafSync } = require('internal/fs/rimraf'));
}
 
function rmdir(path, options, callback) {
  if (typeof options === 'function') {
    callback = options;
    options = undefined;
  }
 
  callback = makeCallback(callback);
  path = pathModule.toNamespacedPath(getValidatedPath(path));
 
  if (options?.recursive) {
    emitRecursiveRmdirWarning();
    validateRmOptions(
      path,
      { ...options, force: false },
      true,
      (err, options) => {
        if (err === false) {
          const req = new FSReqCallback();
          req.oncomplete = callback;
          return binding.rmdir(path, req);
        }
        if (err) {
          return callback(err);
        }
 
        lazyLoadRimraf();
        rimraf(path, options, callback);
      });
  } else {
    validateRmdirOptions(options);
    const req = new FSReqCallback();
    req.oncomplete = callback;
    return binding.rmdir(path, req);
  }
}
 
function rmdirSync(path, options) {
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
 
  if (options?.recursive) {
    emitRecursiveRmdirWarning();
    options = validateRmOptionsSync(path, { ...options, force: false }, true);
    if (options !== false) {
      lazyLoadRimraf();
      return rimrafSync(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path), options);
    }
  } else {
    validateRmdirOptions(options);
  }
 
  const ctx = { path };
  binding.rmdir(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path), undefined, ctx);
  return handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
}
 
function rm(path, options, callback) {
  if (typeof options === 'function') {
    callback = options;
    options = undefined;
  }
 
  validateRmOptions(path, options, false, (err, options) => {
    if (err) {
      return callback(err);
    }
    lazyLoadRimraf();
    return rimraf(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path), options, callback);
  });
}
 
function rmSync(path, options) {
  options = validateRmOptionsSync(path, options, false);
 
  lazyLoadRimraf();
  return rimrafSync(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path), options);
}
 
function fdatasync(fd, callback) {
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = makeCallback(callback);
  binding.fdatasync(fd, req);
}
 
function fdatasyncSync(fd) {
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
  const ctx = {};
  binding.fdatasync(fd, undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
}
 
function fsync(fd, callback) {
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = makeCallback(callback);
  binding.fsync(fd, req);
}
 
function fsyncSync(fd) {
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
  const ctx = {};
  binding.fsync(fd, undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
}
 
function mkdir(path, options, callback) {
  let mode = 0o777;
  let recursive = false;
  if (typeof options === 'function') {
    callback = options;
  } else if (typeof options === 'number' || typeof options === 'string') {
    mode = options;
  } else if (options) {
    if (options.recursive !== undefined)
      recursive = options.recursive;
    if (options.mode !== undefined)
      mode = options.mode;
  }
  callback = makeCallback(callback);
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
 
  validateBoolean(recursive, 'options.recursive');
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  binding.mkdir(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path),
                parseFileMode(mode, 'mode'), recursive, req);
}
 
function mkdirSync(path, options) {
  let mode = 0o777;
  let recursive = false;
  if (typeof options === 'number' || typeof options === 'string') {
    mode = options;
  } else if (options) {
    if (options.recursive !== undefined)
      recursive = options.recursive;
    if (options.mode !== undefined)
      mode = options.mode;
  }
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
  validateBoolean(recursive, 'options.recursive');
 
  const ctx = { path };
  const result = binding.mkdir(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path),
                               parseFileMode(mode, 'mode'), recursive,
                               undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
  if (recursive) {
    return result;
  }
}
 
function readdir(path, options, callback) {
  callback = makeCallback(typeof options === 'function' ? options : callback);
  options = getOptions(options, {});
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  if (!options.withFileTypes) {
    req.oncomplete = callback;
  } else {
    req.oncomplete = (err, result) => {
      if (err) {
        callback(err);
        return;
      }
      getDirents(path, result, callback);
    };
  }
  binding.readdir(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path), options.encoding,
                  !!options.withFileTypes, req);
}
 
function readdirSync(path, options) {
  options = getOptions(options, {});
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
  const ctx = { path };
  const result = binding.readdir(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path),
                                 options.encoding, !!options.withFileTypes,
                                 undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
  return options.withFileTypes ? getDirents(path, result) : result;
}
 
function fstat(fd, options = { bigint: false }, callback) {
  if (typeof options === 'function') {
    callback = options;
    options = {};
  }
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
  callback = makeStatsCallback(callback);
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback(options.bigint);
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  binding.fstat(fd, options.bigint, req);
}
 
function lstat(path, options = { bigint: false }, callback) {
  if (typeof options === 'function') {
    callback = options;
    options = {};
  }
  callback = makeStatsCallback(callback);
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback(options.bigint);
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  binding.lstat(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path), options.bigint, req);
}
 
function stat(path, options = { bigint: false }, callback) {
  if (typeof options === 'function') {
    callback = options;
    options = {};
  }
  callback = makeStatsCallback(callback);
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback(options.bigint);
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  binding.stat(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path), options.bigint, req);
}
 
function hasNoEntryError(ctx) {
  if (ctx.errno) {
    const uvErr = uvErrmapGet(ctx.errno);
    return uvErr?.[0] === 'ENOENT';
  }
 
  if (ctx.error) {
    return ctx.error.code === 'ENOENT';
  }
 
  return false;
}
 
function fstatSync(fd, options = { bigint: false, throwIfNoEntry: true }) {
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
  const ctx = { fd };
  const stats = binding.fstat(fd, options.bigint, undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
  return getStatsFromBinding(stats);
}
 
function lstatSync(path, options = { bigint: false, throwIfNoEntry: true }) {
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
  const ctx = { path };
  const stats = binding.lstat(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path),
                              options.bigint, undefined, ctx);
  if (options.throwIfNoEntry === false && hasNoEntryError(ctx)) {
    return undefined;
  }
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
  return getStatsFromBinding(stats);
}
 
function statSync(path, options = { bigint: false, throwIfNoEntry: true }) {
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
  const ctx = { path };
  const stats = binding.stat(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path),
                             options.bigint, undefined, ctx);
  if (options.throwIfNoEntry === false && hasNoEntryError(ctx)) {
    return undefined;
  }
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
  return getStatsFromBinding(stats);
}
 
function readlink(path, options, callback) {
  callback = makeCallback(typeof options === 'function' ? options : callback);
  options = getOptions(options, {});
  path = getValidatedPath(path, 'oldPath');
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  binding.readlink(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path), options.encoding, req);
}
 
function readlinkSync(path, options) {
  options = getOptions(options, {});
  path = getValidatedPath(path, 'oldPath');
  const ctx = { path };
  const result = binding.readlink(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path),
                                  options.encoding, undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
  return result;
}
 
function symlink(target, path, type_, callback_) {
  const type = (typeof type_ === 'string' ? type_ : null);
  const callback = makeCallback(arguments[arguments.length - 1]);
 
  target = getValidatedPath(target, 'target');
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
 
  if (isWindows && type === null) {
    let absoluteTarget;
    try {
      // Symlinks targets can be relative to the newly created path.
      // Calculate absolute file name of the symlink target, and check
      // if it is a directory. Ignore resolve error to keep symlink
      // errors consistent between platforms if invalid path is
      // provided.
      absoluteTarget = pathModule.resolve(path, '..', target);
    } catch { }
    if (absoluteTarget !== undefined) {
      stat(absoluteTarget, (err, stat) => {
        const resolvedType = !err && stat.isDirectory() ? 'dir' : 'file';
        const resolvedFlags = stringToSymlinkType(resolvedType);
        const destination = preprocessSymlinkDestination(target,
                                                         resolvedType,
                                                         path);

        const req = new FSReqCallback();
        req.oncomplete = callback;
        binding.symlink(destination,
                        pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path), resolvedFlags, req);
      });
      return;
    }
  }
 
  const destination = preprocessSymlinkDestination(target, type, path);
 
  const flags = stringToSymlinkType(type);
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  binding.symlink(destination, pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path), flags, req);
}
 
function symlinkSync(target, path, type) {
  type = (typeof type === 'string' ? type : null);
  if (isWindows && type === null) {
    const absoluteTarget = pathModule.resolve(`${path}`, '..', `${target}`);
    if (statSync(absoluteTarget, { throwIfNoEntry: false })?.isDirectory()) {
      type = 'dir';
    }
  }
  target = getValidatedPath(target, 'target');
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
  const flags = stringToSymlinkType(type);
 
  const ctx = { path: target, dest: path };
  binding.symlink(preprocessSymlinkDestination(target, type, path),
                  pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path), flags, undefined, ctx);
 
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
}
 
function link(existingPath, newPath, callback) {
  callback = makeCallback(callback);
 
  existingPath = getValidatedPath(existingPath, 'existingPath');
  newPath = getValidatedPath(newPath, 'newPath');
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = callback;
 
  binding.link(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(existingPath),
               pathModule.toNamespacedPath(newPath),
               req);
}
 
function linkSync(existingPath, newPath) {
  existingPath = getValidatedPath(existingPath, 'existingPath');
  newPath = getValidatedPath(newPath, 'newPath');
 
  const ctx = { path: existingPath, dest: newPath };
  const result = binding.link(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(existingPath),
                              pathModule.toNamespacedPath(newPath),
                              undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
  return result;
}
 
function unlink(path, callback) {
  callback = makeCallback(callback);
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  binding.unlink(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path), req);
}
 
function unlinkSync(path) {
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
  const ctx = { path };
  binding.unlink(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path), undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
}
 
function fchmod(fd, mode, callback) {
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
  mode = parseFileMode(mode, 'mode');
  callback = makeCallback(callback);
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  binding.fchmod(fd, mode, req);
}
 
function fchmodSync(fd, mode) {
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
  mode = parseFileMode(mode, 'mode');
  const ctx = {};
  binding.fchmod(fd, mode, undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
}
 
function lchmod(path, mode, callback) {
  callback = maybeCallback(callback);
  mode = parseFileMode(mode, 'mode');
  fs.open(path, O_WRONLY | O_SYMLINK, (err, fd) => {
    if (err) {
      callback(err);
      return;
    }
    // Prefer to return the chmod error, if one occurs,
    // but still try to close, and report closing errors if they occur.
    fs.fchmod(fd, mode, (err) => {
      fs.close(fd, (err2) => {
        callback(aggregateTwoErrors(err2, err));
      });
    });
  });
}
 
function lchmodSync(path, mode) {
  const fd = fs.openSync(path, O_WRONLY | O_SYMLINK);

  // Prefer to return the chmod error, if one occurs,
  // but still try to close, and report closing errors if they occur.
  let ret;
  try {
    ret = fs.fchmodSync(fd, mode);
  } finally {
    fs.closeSync(fd);
  }
  return ret;
}
 
 
function chmod(path, mode, callback) {
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
  mode = parseFileMode(mode, 'mode');
  callback = makeCallback(callback);
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  binding.chmod(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path), mode, req);
}
 
function chmodSync(path, mode) {
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
  mode = parseFileMode(mode, 'mode');
 
  const ctx = { path };
  binding.chmod(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path), mode, undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
}
 
function lchown(path, uid, gid, callback) {
  callback = makeCallback(callback);
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
  validateInteger(uid, 'uid', -1, kMaxUserId);
  validateInteger(gid, 'gid', -1, kMaxUserId);
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  binding.lchown(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path), uid, gid, req);
}
 
function lchownSync(path, uid, gid) {
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
  validateInteger(uid, 'uid', -1, kMaxUserId);
  validateInteger(gid, 'gid', -1, kMaxUserId);
  const ctx = { path };
  binding.lchown(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path), uid, gid, undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
}
 
function fchown(fd, uid, gid, callback) {
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
  validateInteger(uid, 'uid', -1, kMaxUserId);
  validateInteger(gid, 'gid', -1, kMaxUserId);
  callback = makeCallback(callback);
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  binding.fchown(fd, uid, gid, req);
}
 
function fchownSync(fd, uid, gid) {
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
  validateInteger(uid, 'uid', -1, kMaxUserId);
  validateInteger(gid, 'gid', -1, kMaxUserId);
 
  const ctx = {};
  binding.fchown(fd, uid, gid, undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
}
 
function chown(path, uid, gid, callback) {
  callback = makeCallback(callback);
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
  validateInteger(uid, 'uid', -1, kMaxUserId);
  validateInteger(gid, 'gid', -1, kMaxUserId);
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  binding.chown(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path), uid, gid, req);
}
 
function chownSync(path, uid, gid) {
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
  validateInteger(uid, 'uid', -1, kMaxUserId);
  validateInteger(gid, 'gid', -1, kMaxUserId);
  const ctx = { path };
  binding.chown(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path), uid, gid, undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
}
 
function utimes(path, atime, mtime, callback) {
  callback = makeCallback(callback);
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  binding.utimes(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path),
                 toUnixTimestamp(atime),
                 toUnixTimestamp(mtime),
                 req);
}
 
function utimesSync(path, atime, mtime) {
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
  const ctx = { path };
  binding.utimes(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path),
                 toUnixTimestamp(atime), toUnixTimestamp(mtime),
                 undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
}
 
function futimes(fd, atime, mtime, callback) {
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
  atime = toUnixTimestamp(atime, 'atime');
  mtime = toUnixTimestamp(mtime, 'mtime');
  callback = makeCallback(callback);
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  binding.futimes(fd, atime, mtime, req);
}
 
function futimesSync(fd, atime, mtime) {
  fd = getValidatedFd(fd);
  atime = toUnixTimestamp(atime, 'atime');
  mtime = toUnixTimestamp(mtime, 'mtime');
  const ctx = {};
  binding.futimes(fd, atime, mtime, undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
}
 
function lutimes(path, atime, mtime, callback) {
  callback = makeCallback(callback);
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  binding.lutimes(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path),
                  toUnixTimestamp(atime),
                  toUnixTimestamp(mtime),
                  req);
}
 
function lutimesSync(path, atime, mtime) {
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
  const ctx = { path };
  binding.lutimes(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(path),
                  toUnixTimestamp(atime),
                  toUnixTimestamp(mtime),
                  undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
}
 
function writeAll(fd, isUserFd, buffer, offset, length, signal, callback) {
  if (signal?.aborted) {
    const abortError = new AbortError();
    if (isUserFd) {
      callback(abortError);
    } else {
      fs.close(fd, (err) => {
        callback(aggregateTwoErrors(err, abortError));
      });
    }
    return;
  }
  // write(fd, buffer, offset, length, position, callback)
  fs.write(fd, buffer, offset, length, null, (writeErr, written) => {
    if (writeErr) {
      if (isUserFd) {
        callback(writeErr);
      } else {
        fs.close(fd, (err) => {
          callback(aggregateTwoErrors(err, writeErr));
        });
      }
    } else if (written === length) {
      if (isUserFd) {
        callback(null);
      } else {
        fs.close(fd, callback);
      }
    } else {
      offset += written;
      length -= written;
      writeAll(fd, isUserFd, buffer, offset, length, signal, callback);
    }
  });
}
 
function writeFile(path, data, options, callback) {
  callback = maybeCallback(callback || options);
  options = getOptions(options, { encoding: 'utf8', mode: 0o666, flag: 'w' });
  const flag = options.flag || 'w';
 
  if (!isArrayBufferView(data)) {
    validateStringAfterArrayBufferView(data, 'data');
    data = Buffer.from(String(data), options.encoding || 'utf8');
  }
 
  if (isFd(path)) {
    const isUserFd = true;
    const signal = options.signal;
    writeAll(path, isUserFd, data, 0, data.byteLength, signal, callback);
    return;
  }
 
  if (checkAborted(options.signal, callback))
    return;
 
  fs.open(path, flag, options.mode, (openErr, fd) => {
    if (openErr) {
      callback(openErr);
    } else {
      const isUserFd = false;
      const signal = options.signal;
      writeAll(fd, isUserFd, data, 0, data.byteLength, signal, callback);
    }
  });
}
 
function writeFileSync(path, data, options) {
  options = getOptions(options, { encoding: 'utf8', mode: 0o666, flag: 'w' });
 
  if (!isArrayBufferView(data)) {
    validateStringAfterArrayBufferView(data, 'data');
    data = Buffer.from(String(data), options.encoding || 'utf8');
  }
 
  const flag = options.flag || 'w';
 
  const isUserFd = isFd(path); // File descriptor ownership
  const fd = isUserFd ? path : fs.openSync(path, flag, options.mode);
 
  let offset = 0;
  let length = data.byteLength;
  try {
    while (length > 0) {
      const written = fs.writeSync(fd, data, offset, length);
      offset += written;
      length -= written;
    }
  } finally {
    if (!isUserFd) fs.closeSync(fd);
  }
}
 
function appendFile(path, data, options, callback) {
  callback = maybeCallback(callback || options);
  options = getOptions(options, { encoding: 'utf8', mode: 0o666, flag: 'a' });
 
  // Don't make changes directly on options object
  options = copyObject(options);
 
  // Force append behavior when using a supplied file descriptor
  if (!options.flag || isFd(path))
    options.flag = 'a';
 
  fs.writeFile(path, data, options, callback);
}
 
function appendFileSync(path, data, options) {
  options = getOptions(options, { encoding: 'utf8', mode: 0o666, flag: 'a' });
 
  // Don't make changes directly on options object
  options = copyObject(options);
 
  // Force append behavior when using a supplied file descriptor
  if (!options.flag || isFd(path))
    options.flag = 'a';
 
  fs.writeFileSync(path, data, options);
}
 
function watch(filename, options, listener) {
  if (typeof options === 'function') {
    listener = options;
  }
  options = getOptions(options, {});
 
  // Don't make changes directly on options object
  options = copyObject(options);
 
  if (options.persistent === undefined) options.persistent = true;
  if (options.recursive === undefined) options.recursive = false;
  if (options.recursive && !(isOSX || isWindows))
    throw new ERR_FEATURE_UNAVAILABLE_ON_PLATFORM('watch recursively');
  if (!watchers)
    watchers = require('internal/fs/watchers');
  const watcher = new watchers.FSWatcher();
  watcher[watchers.kFSWatchStart](filename,
                                  options.persistent,
                                  options.recursive,
                                  options.encoding);
 
  if (listener) {
    watcher.addListener('change', listener);
  }
  if (options.signal) {
    if (options.signal.aborted) {
      process.nextTick(() => watcher.close());
    } else {
      const listener = () => watcher.close();
      options.signal.addEventListener('abort', listener);
      watcher.once('close', () => {
        options.signal.removeEventListener('abort', listener);
      });
    }
  }
 
  return watcher;
}
 
 
const statWatchers = new SafeMap();
 
function watchFile(filename, options, listener) {
  filename = getValidatedPath(filename);
  filename = pathModule.resolve(filename);
  let stat;
 
  if (options === null || typeof options !== 'object') {
    listener = options;
    options = null;
  }
 
  options = {
    // Poll interval in milliseconds. 5007 is what libev used to use. It's
    // a little on the slow side but let's stick with it for now to keep
    // behavioral changes to a minimum.
    interval: 5007,
    persistent: true,
    ...options
  };
 
  validateFunction(listener, 'listener');
 
  stat = statWatchers.get(filename);
 
  if (stat === undefined) {
    if (!watchers)
      watchers = require('internal/fs/watchers');
    stat = new watchers.StatWatcher(options.bigint);
    stat[watchers.kFSStatWatcherStart](filename,
                                       options.persistent, options.interval);
    statWatchers.set(filename, stat);
  } else {
    stat[watchers.kFSStatWatcherAddOrCleanRef]('add');
  }
 
  stat.addListener('change', listener);
  return stat;
}
 
function unwatchFile(filename, listener) {
  filename = getValidatedPath(filename);
  filename = pathModule.resolve(filename);
  const stat = statWatchers.get(filename);
 
  if (stat === undefined) return;
 
  if (typeof listener === 'function') {
    const beforeListenerCount = stat.listenerCount('change');
    stat.removeListener('change', listener);
    if (stat.listenerCount('change') < beforeListenerCount)
      stat[watchers.kFSStatWatcherAddOrCleanRef]('clean');
  } else {
    stat.removeAllListeners('change');
    stat[watchers.kFSStatWatcherAddOrCleanRef]('cleanAll');
  }
 
  if (stat.listenerCount('change') === 0) {
    stat.stop();
    statWatchers.delete(filename);
  }
}
 
 
let splitRoot;
if (isWindows) {
  // Regex to find the device root on Windows (e.g. 'c:\\'), including trailing
  // slash.
  const splitRootRe = /^(?:[a-zA-Z]:|[\\/]{2}[^\\/]+[\\/][^\\/]+)?[\\/]*/;
  splitRoot = function splitRoot(str) {
    return RegExpPrototypeExec(splitRootRe, str)[0];
  };
} else {
  splitRoot = function splitRoot(str) {
    for (let i = 0; i < str.length; ++i) {
      if (StringPrototypeCharCodeAt(str, i) !== CHAR_FORWARD_SLASH)
        return StringPrototypeSlice(str, 0, i);
    }
    return str;
  };
}
 
function encodeRealpathResult(result, options) {
  if (!options || !options.encoding || options.encoding === 'utf8')
    return result;
  const asBuffer = Buffer.from(result);
  if (options.encoding === 'buffer') {
    return asBuffer;
  }
  return asBuffer.toString(options.encoding);
}
 
// Finds the next portion of a (partial) path, up to the next path delimiter
let nextPart;
if (isWindows) {
  nextPart = function nextPart(p, i) {
    for (; i < p.length; ++i) {
      const ch = StringPrototypeCharCodeAt(p, i);

      // Check for a separator character
      if (ch === CHAR_BACKWARD_SLASH || ch === CHAR_FORWARD_SLASH)
        return i;
    }
    return -1;
  };
} else {
  nextPart = function nextPart(p, i) {
    return StringPrototypeIndexOf(p, '/', i);
  };
}
 
const emptyObj = ObjectCreate(null);
function realpathSync(p, options) {
  options = getOptions(options, emptyObj);
  p = toPathIfFileURL(p);
  if (typeof p !== 'string') {
    p += '';
  }
  validatePath(p);
  p = pathModule.resolve(p);
 
  const cache = options[realpathCacheKey];
  const maybeCachedResult = cache?.get(p);
  if (maybeCachedResult) {
    return maybeCachedResult;
  }
 
  const seenLinks = ObjectCreate(null);
  const knownHard = ObjectCreate(null);
  const original = p;
 
  // Current character position in p
  let pos;
  // The partial path so far, including a trailing slash if any
  let current;
  // The partial path without a trailing slash (except when pointing at a root)
  let base;
  // The partial path scanned in the previous round, with slash
  let previous;
 
  // Skip over roots
  current = base = splitRoot(p);
  pos = current.length;
 
  // On windows, check that the root exists. On unix there is no need.
  if (isWindows) {
    const ctx = { path: base };
    binding.lstat(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(base), false, undefined, ctx);
    handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
    knownHard[base] = true;
  }
 
  // Walk down the path, swapping out linked path parts for their real
  // values
  // NB: p.length changes.
  while (pos < p.length) {
    // find the next part
    const result = nextPart(p, pos);
    previous = current;
    if (result === -1) {
      const last = StringPrototypeSlice(p, pos);
      current += last;
      base = previous + last;
      pos = p.length;
    } else {
      current += StringPrototypeSlice(p, pos, result + 1);
      base = previous + StringPrototypeSlice(p, pos, result);
      pos = result + 1;
    }
 
    // Continue if not a symlink, break if a pipe/socket
    if (knownHard[base] || cache?.get(base) === base) {
      if (isFileType(binding.statValues, S_IFIFO) ||
          isFileType(binding.statValues, S_IFSOCK)) {
        break;
      }
      continue;
    }
 
    let resolvedLink;
    const maybeCachedResolved = cache?.get(base);
    if (maybeCachedResolved) {
      resolvedLink = maybeCachedResolved;
    } else {
      // Use stats array directly to avoid creating an fs.Stats instance just
      // for our internal use.
 
      const baseLong = pathModule.toNamespacedPath(base);
      const ctx = { path: base };
      const stats = binding.lstat(baseLong, true, undefined, ctx);
      handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
 
      if (!isFileType(stats, S_IFLNK)) {
        knownHard[base] = true;
        cache?.set(base, base);
        continue;
      }
 
      // Read the link if it wasn't read before
      // dev/ino always return 0 on windows, so skip the check.
      let linkTarget = null;
      let id;
      if (!isWindows) {
        const dev = BigIntPrototypeToString(stats[0], 32);
        const ino = BigIntPrototypeToString(stats[7], 32);
        id = `${dev}:${ino}`;
        if (seenLinks[id]) {
          linkTarget = seenLinks[id];
        }
      }
      if (linkTarget === null) {
        const ctx = { path: base };
        binding.stat(baseLong, false, undefined, ctx);
        handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
        linkTarget = binding.readlink(baseLong, undefined, undefined, ctx);
        handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
      }
      resolvedLink = pathModule.resolve(previous, linkTarget);
 
      if (cache) cache.set(base, resolvedLink);
      if (!isWindows) seenLinks[id] = linkTarget;
    }
 
    // Resolve the link, then start over
    p = pathModule.resolve(resolvedLink, StringPrototypeSlice(p, pos));
 
    // Skip over roots
    current = base = splitRoot(p);
    pos = current.length;
 
    // On windows, check that the root exists. On unix there is no need.
    if (isWindows && !knownHard[base]) {
      const ctx = { path: base };
      binding.lstat(pathModule.toNamespacedPath(base), false, undefined, ctx);
      handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
      knownHard[base] = true;
    }
  }
 
  cache?.set(original, p);
  return encodeRealpathResult(p, options);
}
 
 
realpathSync.native = (path, options) => {
  options = getOptions(options, {});
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
  const ctx = { path };
  const result = binding.realpath(path, options.encoding, undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
  return result;
};
 
 
function realpath(p, options, callback) {
  callback = typeof options === 'function' ? options : maybeCallback(callback);
  options = getOptions(options, {});
  p = toPathIfFileURL(p);
 
  if (typeof p !== 'string') {
    p += '';
  }
  validatePath(p);
  p = pathModule.resolve(p);
 
  const seenLinks = ObjectCreate(null);
  const knownHard = ObjectCreate(null);
 
  // Current character position in p
  let pos;
  // The partial path so far, including a trailing slash if any
  let current;
  // The partial path without a trailing slash (except when pointing at a root)
  let base;
  // The partial path scanned in the previous round, with slash
  let previous;
 
  current = base = splitRoot(p);
  pos = current.length;
 
  // On windows, check that the root exists. On unix there is no need.
  if (isWindows && !knownHard[base]) {
    fs.lstat(base, (err, stats) => {
      if (err) return callback(err);
      knownHard[base] = true;
      LOOP();
    });
  } else {
    process.nextTick(LOOP);
  }
 
  // Walk down the path, swapping out linked path parts for their real
  // values
  function LOOP() {
    // Stop if scanned past end of path
    if (pos >= p.length) {
      return callback(null, encodeRealpathResult(p, options));
    }
 
    // find the next part
    const result = nextPart(p, pos);
    previous = current;
    if (result === -1) {
      const last = StringPrototypeSlice(p, pos);
      current += last;
      base = previous + last;
      pos = p.length;
    } else {
      current += StringPrototypeSlice(p, pos, result + 1);
      base = previous + StringPrototypeSlice(p, pos, result);
      pos = result + 1;
    }
 
    // Continue if not a symlink, break if a pipe/socket
    if (knownHard[base]) {
      if (isFileType(binding.statValues, S_IFIFO) ||
          isFileType(binding.statValues, S_IFSOCK)) {
        return callback(null, encodeRealpathResult(p, options));
      }
      return process.nextTick(LOOP);
    }
 
    return fs.lstat(base, { bigint: true }, gotStat);
  }
 
  function gotStat(err, stats) {
    if (err) return callback(err);
 
    // If not a symlink, skip to the next path part
    if (!stats.isSymbolicLink()) {
      knownHard[base] = true;
      return process.nextTick(LOOP);
    }
 
    // Stat & read the link if not read before.
    // Call `gotTarget()` as soon as the link target is known.
    // `dev`/`ino` always return 0 on windows, so skip the check.
    let id;
    if (!isWindows) {
      const dev = BigIntPrototypeToString(stats.dev, 32);
      const ino = BigIntPrototypeToString(stats.ino, 32);
      id = `${dev}:${ino}`;
      if (seenLinks[id]) {
        return gotTarget(null, seenLinks[id]);
      }
    }
    fs.stat(base, (err) => {
      if (err) return callback(err);
 
      fs.readlink(base, (err, target) => {
        if (!isWindows) seenLinks[id] = target;
        gotTarget(err, target);
      });
    });
  }
 
  function gotTarget(err, target) {
    if (err) return callback(err);
 
    gotResolvedLink(pathModule.resolve(previous, target));
  }
 
  function gotResolvedLink(resolvedLink) {
    // Resolve the link, then start over
    p = pathModule.resolve(resolvedLink, StringPrototypeSlice(p, pos));
    current = base = splitRoot(p);
    pos = current.length;
 
    // On windows, check that the root exists. On unix there is no need.
    if (isWindows && !knownHard[base]) {
      fs.lstat(base, (err) => {
        if (err) return callback(err);
        knownHard[base] = true;
        LOOP();
      });
    } else {
      process.nextTick(LOOP);
    }
  }
}
 
 
realpath.native = (path, options, callback) => {
  callback = makeCallback(callback || options);
  options = getOptions(options, {});
  path = getValidatedPath(path);
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  return binding.realpath(path, options.encoding, req);
};
 
function mkdtemp(prefix, options, callback) {
  callback = makeCallback(typeof options === 'function' ? options : callback);
  options = getOptions(options, {});
  if (!prefix || typeof prefix !== 'string') {
    throw new ERR_INVALID_ARG_TYPE('prefix', 'string', prefix);
  }
  nullCheck(prefix, 'prefix');
  warnOnNonPortableTemplate(prefix);
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  binding.mkdtemp(`${prefix}XXXXXX`, options.encoding, req);
}
 
 
function mkdtempSync(prefix, options) {
  options = getOptions(options, {});
  if (!prefix || typeof prefix !== 'string') {
    throw new ERR_INVALID_ARG_TYPE('prefix', 'string', prefix);
  }
  nullCheck(prefix, 'prefix');
  warnOnNonPortableTemplate(prefix);
  const path = `${prefix}XXXXXX`;
  const ctx = { path };
  const result = binding.mkdtemp(path, options.encoding,
                                 undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
  return result;
}
 
 
function copyFile(src, dest, mode, callback) {
  if (typeof mode === 'function') {
    callback = mode;
    mode = 0;
  }
 
  src = getValidatedPath(src, 'src');
  dest = getValidatedPath(dest, 'dest');
 
  src = pathModule._makeLong(src);
  dest = pathModule._makeLong(dest);
  mode = getValidMode(mode, 'copyFile');
  callback = makeCallback(callback);
 
  const req = new FSReqCallback();
  req.oncomplete = callback;
  binding.copyFile(src, dest, mode, req);
}
 
 
function copyFileSync(src, dest, mode) {
  src = getValidatedPath(src, 'src');
  dest = getValidatedPath(dest, 'dest');
 
  const ctx = { path: src, dest };  // non-prefixed
 
  src = pathModule._makeLong(src);
  dest = pathModule._makeLong(dest);
  mode = getValidMode(mode, 'copyFile');
  binding.copyFile(src, dest, mode, undefined, ctx);
  handleErrorFromBinding(ctx);
}
 
function lazyLoadStreams() {
  if (!ReadStream) {
    ({ ReadStream, WriteStream } = require('internal/fs/streams'));
    FileReadStream = ReadStream;
    FileWriteStream = WriteStream;
  }
}
 
function createReadStream(path, options) {
  lazyLoadStreams();
  return new ReadStream(path, options);
}
 
function createWriteStream(path, options) {
  lazyLoadStreams();
  return new WriteStream(path, options);
}
 
module.exports = fs = {
  appendFile,
  appendFileSync,
  access,
  accessSync,
  chown,
  chownSync,
  chmod,
  chmodSync,
  close,
  closeSync,
  copyFile,
  copyFileSync,
  createReadStream,
  createWriteStream,
  exists,
  existsSync,
  fchown,
  fchownSync,
  fchmod,
  fchmodSync,
  fdatasync,
  fdatasyncSync,
  fstat,
  fstatSync,
  fsync,
  fsyncSync,
  ftruncate,
  ftruncateSync,
  futimes,
  futimesSync,
  lchown,
  lchownSync,
  lchmod: constants.O_SYMLINK !== undefined ? lchmod : undefined,
  lchmodSync: constants.O_SYMLINK !== undefined ? lchmodSync : undefined,
  link,
  linkSync,
  lstat,
  lstatSync,
  lutimes,
  lutimesSync,
  mkdir,
  mkdirSync,
  mkdtemp,
  mkdtempSync,
  open,
  openSync,
  opendir,
  opendirSync,
  readdir,
  readdirSync,
  read,
  readSync,
  readv,
  readvSync,
  readFile,
  readFileSync,
  readlink,
  readlinkSync,
  realpath,
  realpathSync,
  rename,
  renameSync,
  rm,
  rmSync,
  rmdir,
  rmdirSync,
  stat,
  statSync,
  symlink,
  symlinkSync,
  truncate,
  truncateSync,
  unwatchFile,
  unlink,
  unlinkSync,
  utimes,
  utimesSync,
  watch,
  watchFile,
  writeFile,
  writeFileSync,
  write,
  writeSync,
  writev,
  writevSync,
  Dir,
  Dirent,
  Stats,
 
  get ReadStream() {
    lazyLoadStreams();
    return ReadStream;
  },
 
  set ReadStream(val) {
    ReadStream = val;
  },
 
  get WriteStream() {
    lazyLoadStreams();
    return WriteStream;
  },
 
  set WriteStream(val) {
    WriteStream = val;
  },
 
  // Legacy names... these have to be separate because of how graceful-fs
  // (and possibly other) modules monkey patch the values.
  get FileReadStream() {
    lazyLoadStreams();
    return FileReadStream;
  },
 
  set FileReadStream(val) {
    FileReadStream = val;
  },
 
  get FileWriteStream() {
    lazyLoadStreams();
    return FileWriteStream;
  },
 
  set FileWriteStream(val) {
    FileWriteStream = val;
  },
 
  // For tests
  _toUnixTimestamp: toUnixTimestamp
};
 
ObjectDefineProperties(fs, {
  F_OK: { enumerable: true, value: F_OK || 0 },
  R_OK: { enumerable: true, value: R_OK || 0 },
  W_OK: { enumerable: true, value: W_OK || 0 },
  X_OK: { enumerable: true, value: X_OK || 0 },
  constants: {
    configurable: false,
    enumerable: true,
    value: constants
  },
  promises: {
    configurable: true,
    enumerable: true,
    get() {
      if (promises === null)
        promises = require('internal/fs/promises').exports;
      return promises;
    }
  }
});